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Fuel is a permissionless and trustless layer-2 protocol for Ethereum, targeted at low-cost high-throughput value-transfer transactions. Fuel is powered by a highly-optimized optimistic rollup design.

Fuel's Features

  • Completely decentralized: non-custodial, censorship resistant, and permissionless
  • The most scalable optimistic rollup in the world, with unique UTXO-based design
  • 500 TPS maximum on-chain throughput (4300 with BLS aggregate signatures)
  • Up to 10,000 TPS surge intake capacity
  • Send and receive using any Ethereum address, no registration required
  • ETH and all ERC-20 tokens are supported
  • Non-custodial token swaps between any tokens
  • Fees can be paid in any token, not just ETH
  • HTLCs for cross-chain atomic swaps and additional usecases
  • Withdrawals in under 10 minutes using atomic swaps

What Makes Fuel Different

  • UTXO-based design optimized for maximum scalability
    • Parallelism: transactions can be validated in parallel on consumer-grade hardware
    • No state bottleneck: unique fraud proof scheme doesn't require state serialization
  • No special key formats or on-chain account registration required
  • No upfront collateral requirements (unlike channels)
  • Permissionless and censorship-resistant (unlike Plasma/Validium)
  • No burdensome proof generation with high latency (unlike ZK rollups and Validium)
  • No exotic cryptography (unlike ZK rollups and Validium)
  • No trusted setup (unlike SNARK-based ZK rollups and Validium)
  • Care and attention to user-level issues
    • Can deposit using simple transfers from any account (including exchange accounts) using Funnel contracts
    • Can use a smart contract wallet to authorize transactions on Fuel

What To Read Next?

System benchmarks can be found on the next page.

If you want to know more about the fundamentals of Fuel's architecture, our Technical Fundamentals is your next stop. A detailed analysis on the security and scalability of Fuel is available.

If you're a developer and want to build on top of, or integrate with, Fuel, check out our Getting Started guide and wallet SDK documentation.

For examples of tools and applications that can built on top of Fuel, start here.

Finally, our technical roadmap can be found here.